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Issue Contents


Volume 13, Issue 3
Published: May 22, 2017
Finite element analysis in cryogenic and refrigerated tank storage design

LNG as a sustainable source of energy has become a safe and economical solution for countries not connected to
a gas supply pipeline network. Bulk storage of LNG is usually achieved via the use of low pressure refrigerated storage tanks operating at cryogenic temperatures at each end of the supply chain. These cryogenic storage tanks are also needed for energy suppliers using peak shaving tanks to cover peak demands and bunker stations located at harbours to supply vessels.
In the early years, LNG was stored in single walled steel tanks, subsequently double containment steel walled tanks were introduced to contain LNG in the event of spill from the primary or inner container. Today, due to location and safety considerations, full containment (FC) storage tanks have become the industry standard for the storage of LNG.
The design of a LNG storage tank is a challenging task as international codes for design (e.g. EN14620 and API620) often lack sufficient precise descriptions for the analytical procedures which need to be applied in the design.

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Expanding Oiltanking's footprint in North America
Following the sale of its two biggest US assets in 2014, Oiltanking is on the expansion track again with a newly acquired terminal and ambitious plans for a new deepwater facility in Texas Oiltanking North America’s decision to re-enter the crude storage sector was a pragmatic one supported by favourable global market conditions and better shale economics...
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The Trump effect
The Dakota Access Pipeline, which received Presidential approval earlier this year, will provide new means of connectivity at key hubs across the US...
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Who's steering the ship?
John Mayes and John Auers at Turner, Mason & Company examine what is next for the industry following the 2020 deadline set by the IMO for low sulfur bunker fuel In October 2016, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) definitively set the transition date for the introduction of low sulfur bunker fuel to January 1, 2020...
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Expanding into new storage opportunities
Arc Logistics Partners explain how they are organically growing their existing portfolio of storage assets as well as exploring growth opportunities into new markets The liberalisation of Mexico’s energy market has opened up new opportunities for the market and is a potentialfor companies like Arc Logistics Partners to enhance and expand its business...
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Unleashing America's energy
While the industry waits with baited breath for more of President Trump’s ‘ unleashed energy policy’, growth is back on the agenda in the Americas and regions are undergoing a tank storage construction boom...
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Resurgent petroleum industry driving storage requirements
The US petroleum industry is experiencing a resurgence. Demand for road fuels has surpassed pre-recessionlevels, while exports have soared...
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Finite element analysis in cryogenic and refrigerated tank storage design
LNG as a sustainable source of energy has become a safe and economical solution for countries not connected toa gas supply pipeline network...
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Optimising tank terminal operations: from insight to digitalisation
These days, it is hard to find an article about industry and technology which doesn’t mention Industry 4...
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How to avoid building a new 10-year-old terminal
Five experts from Emerson share their thoughts on technologies available that could significantly improve terminal operations As an industry, it’s common to see new terminals and expansion projects that by some measure are 10 years oldthe day that they are commissioned...
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Plastic tanks: Farewell to 'fit and forget'
Stefan Kukula, chief executive of EEMUA, explains how new, expert guidance on plastic tanks fills a much needed gap for users – improving safety and cutting costs PLASTIC TANKS: A POOR RELATION WITH A RICH FUTURE While steel tanks used in heavy industrial engineering applications sustain consistently high levels of interest, their non-metallic cousins – plastic tanks – have consistently remained the poor relation...
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The internet of tanks
When talking about the latest technologies, the Internet of Things (IoT) is a buzzword...
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The four P's to successful coating projects
Often, the mindset of clients and engineers is one of ‘it’s just paint, how hard can it be?’ Everyone thinks it is a slam dunk afterthought, until the system fails pre-maturely...
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The planner's dilemma
Every operator faces the ‘planner’s dilemma’ with regards to vessel turnaround times as they work to ensure their customers are satisfied...
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The FARe approach in rim seal fires
The most common threats that terminal operators wish to avoid are storage tank fires, which have the potential to becatastrophic...
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Lightning protection for fiberglass reinforced plastic storage
There has been a rapidly growing trend for petroleum, water/wastewater and chemical industries to utilise fiberglass reinforced plastic (FRP) storage tanks...
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Technical innovations in emission control
The growing importance of environmental protection and the control of vapour emissions from tanks has resulted in the need for more innovative technologies Stricter environmental regulations are spurring better methods of emission control and as a result the popularity of full contact internal floating roofs is growing as operators adhere to stricter regulations...
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The fluid-handling advantages of screw pumps
While centrifugal pumps have a sizeable installed base in the liquid terminal industry, many benefits can also be realised if operators consider alternative technologies The universe of liquid storage terminals continues to expand and the proof lies in the exponential growth of global storge capacity over the last eight years...
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Changing the future of tank cleaning
A safe tank cleaning solution that removes the need for man entry during cleaning operations has been brought to the market...
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Protecting a storage terminal's most valuable assets
Protecting the safety of workers as they carry out vital tank cleaning for inspection, maintenance and repair projects isof paramount importance for storage facilities, refineries and operators...
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The powe of pumps to bring energy wells back to production
The implementation of a multiphase pumping project at an established energy well in the US has allowed low energy wells to be brought back into production...
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A stress-free approach to lifting
The art of tank lifting is a complex and hazardous specialty and requires reliable and precise tools to ensure neither the tank nor the foundation are damaged...
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